SectionUse of English


Read the following text.Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET.(10 points)

Could a hug a day keep the doctor away? The answer may be a resounding “yes!” 1 helping you feel close and 2 to people you care about, it turns out that hugs can bring a 3 of health benefits to your body and mind. Believe it or not, a warm embrace might even help you 4 getting sick this winter.

In a recent study 5 over 400 healthy adults, researchers from Carnegie Mellon University in Pennsylvania examined the effects of perceived social support and the receipt of hugs 6 the participants’ susceptibility to developing the common cold after being 7 to the virus. People who perceived greater social support were less likely to come 8 with a cold, and the researchers 9 that the stress-reducing effects of hugging 10 about 32 percent of that beneficial effect. 11 among those who got a cold, the ones who felt greater social support and received more frequent hugs had less severe 12 .

“Hugging protects people who are under stress from the 13 risk for colds that’s usually

14 with stress,” notes Sheldon Cohen, a professor of psychology at Carnegie. Hugging“is a marker of intimacy and helps 15 the feeling that others are there to help 16 difficulty.”

Some experts 17 the stress-reducing, health-related benefits of hugging to the release of oxytocin, often called “the bonding hormone” 18 it promotes attachment in relationships, including that between mothers and their newborn babies. Oxytocin is made primarily in the central lower part of the brain, and some of it is released into the bloodstream. But some of it 19 in the brain, where it 20 mood, behavior and physiology.
















16.[A]in the name of[B]in the form of[C]inthe face of[D]in the way of





【答案】1—5 ACBAD 6—10 ADCDC 11—15 DBBCB 16—20 CABAD

SectionReading Comprehension

Part A


Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A,B,C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

Text 1

First two hours, now three hours — this is how far in advance authorities are recommending people show up to catch a domestic flight, at least at some major U.S. airports with increasingly massive security lines.

Americans are willing to tolerate time-consuming security protocols in return for increased safety. The crash of EgyptAir Flight 804, which terrorists may have downed over the Mediterranean Sea, provides another tragic reminder of why. But demanding too much of air travelers or providing too little security in return undermines public support for the process. And it should: Wasted time is a drag on Americans’ economic and private lives, not to mention infuriating.

Last year, the Transportation Security Administration(TSA) found in a secret check that undercover investigators were able to sneak weapons — both fake and real — past airport security nearly every time they tried. Enhanced security measures since then, combined with a rise in airline travel due to the improving economy and low oil prices, have resulted in long waits at major airports such as Chicago’s O’Hare International. It is not yet clear how much more effective airline security has become — but the lines are obvious.

Part of the issue is that the government did not anticipate the steep increase in airline travel, so the TSA is now rushing to get new screeners on the line. Part of the issue is that airports have only so much room for screening lanes. Another factor may be that more people are trying to overpack their carry-on bags to avoid checked-baggage fees, though the airlines strongly dispute this.

There is one step the TSA could take that would not require remodeling airports or rushing to hire: Enroll more people in the PreCheck program. PreCheck is supposed to be a win-win for travelers and the TSA. Passengers who pass a background check are eligible to use expedited screening lanes. This allows the TSA to focus on travelers who are higher risk, saving time for everyone involved. TSA wants to enroll 25 million people in PreCheck.

It has not gotten anywhere close to that, and one big reason is sticker shock: Passengers must pay $85 every five years to process their background checks. Since the beginning, this price tag has been PreCheck’s fatal flaw. Upcoming reforms might bring the price to a more reasonable level. But Congressshould look into doing so directly, by helping to finance PreCheck enrollment or to cut costs in other ways.

The TSA cannot continue diverting resources into underused PreCheck lanes while most of the traveling public suffers in unnecessary lines. It is long past time to make the program work.

21. The crash of EgyptAir Flight 804 is mentioned to_________.

[A] explain American’s tolerance of current security checks.

[B] stress the urgency to strengthen security worldwide.

[C] highlight the necessity of upgrading major U.S. airports.

[D] emphasize the importance of privacy protection.

22. Which of the following contributes to long waits at major airports?

[A] New restrictions on carry-on bags.

[B] The declining efficiency of the TSA.

[C] An increase in the number of travellers.

[D] Frequent unexpected secret checks.

23. The word “expedited” (Liner 4, Para. 5) is closet in meaning to_________.

[A] quieter.

[B] cheaper.

[C] wider.

[D] faster.

24. One problem with the PreCheck program is_________.

[A] a dramatic reduction of its scale.

[B] its wrongly-directed implementation.

[C] the government’s reluctance to back it.

[D] an unreasonable price for enrollment.

25. Which of the following would be the best titlefor the text?

[A] Less Screening for More Safety.

[B] PreCheck – a Belated Solution.

[C] Getting Stuck in Security Lines.

[D] Underused PreCheck Lanes.

【答案】21—25 CCADC

Text 2

“The ancient Hawaiians were astronomers,” wrote Queen Liliuokalani, Hawaii’s last reigning monarch, in 1897. Star watchers were among the most esteemed members of Hawaiian society. Sadly, all is not well with astronomy in Hawaii today. Protests have erupted over construction of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT), a giant observatory that promises to revolutionize humanity’s view of the cosmos.

At issue is the TMT’s planned location on Mauna Kea, a dormant volcano worshiped by some Hawaiians as the pikothat connects the Hawaiian Islands to the heavens. But Mauna Kea is also home to some of the world’s most powerful telescopes. Rested in the Pacific Ocean, Mauna Kea’s peak rises above the bulk of our planet’s dense atmosphere, where conditions allow telescopes to obtain images of unsurpassed clarity.

Opposition to telescopes on Mauna Kea is nothing new. A small but vocal group of Hawaiians and environmentalists have long viewed their presence as disrespect far sacred land and a painful reminder of the occupation of what was once a sovereign nation.

Some blame for the current controversy belongs to astronomers. In their eagerness to build bigger telescopes, they forgot that science is not the only way of understanding the world. They did not always prioritize the protection of Mauna Kea’s fragile ecosystems or its holiness to the islands’ inhabitants. Hawaiian culture is not a relic of the past; it is a living culture undergoing a renaissance today.

Yet science has a cultural history, too, with roots going back to the dawn of civilization. The same curiosity to find what lies beyond the horizon that first brought early Polynesians to Hawaii’s shores inspires astronomers today to explore the heavens. Calls to disassemble all telescopes on Mauna Kea or to ban future development there ignore the reality that astronomy and Hawaiian culture both seek to answer big questions about who we are, where we come from and where we are going. Perhaps that is why we explore the starry skies, as if answering a primal calling to know ourselves and our true ancestral homes.

The astronomy community is making compromises to change its use of Mauna Kea. The TMT site was chosen to minimize the telescope’s visibility around the island and to avoid archaeological and environmental impact. To limit the number of telescopes on Mauna Kea, old ones will be removed at the end of their lifetimes and their sites returned to a natural state. There is no reason why everyone cannot be welcomed on Mauna Kea to embrace their cultural heritage and to study the stars.

26. Queen Liliuokalani’s remark in Paragraph 1 indicates_________.

[A] her conservative view on the historical role of astronomy.

[B] the importance of astronomy in ancient Hawaiian society.

[C]the regrettable decline of astronomy in ancient times.

[D] her appreciation of star watchers’ feats in her time.

27. Mauna Kea is deemed as an ideal astronomical site due to_________.

[A] its geographical features.

[B] its protective surroundings.

[C] its religious implications.

[D] its existing infrastructure.

28. The construction of the TMT is opposed by some locals partly because_________.

[A] it may risk ruining their intellectual life.

[B] it reminds them of a humiliating history.

[C] their culture will lose a chance of revival.

[D] they fear losing control of Mauna Kea.

29. It can be inferred from Paragraph 5 that progress in today’s astronomy_________.

[A] is fulfilling the dreams of ancient Hawaiians.

[B] helps spread Hawaiian culture across the world.

[C] may uncover the origin of Hawaiian culture.

[D] will eventually soften Hawaiians’ hostility.

30. The author’s attitude toward choosing Mauna Kea as the TMT site is one of_________.

[A] severe criticism.

[B] passive acceptance.

[C] slight hesitancy.

[D] full approval.

【答案】26—30 ABBAD

Text 3

Robert F. Kennedy once said that a country’s GDP measures “everything except that which makes life worthwhile.” With Britain voting to leave the European Union, and GDP already predicted to slow as a result, it is now a timely moment to assess what he was referring to.

The question of GDP and its usefulness has annoyed policymakers for over half a century. Many argue that it is a flawed concept. It measures things that do not matter and misses things that do. By most recent measures, the UK’s GDP has been the envy of the Western world, with record low unemployment and high growth figures. If everything was going so well, then why did over 17 million people vote for Brexit, despite the warnings about what it could do to their country’s economic prospects?

A recent annual study of countries and their ability to convert growth into well-being sheds some light on that question. Across the 163 countries measured, the UK is one of the poorest performers in ensuring that economic growth is translated into meaningful improvements for its citizens. Rather than just focusing on GDP, over 40 different sets of criteria from health, education and civil society engagement have been measured to get a more rounded assessment of how countries are performing.

While all of these countries face their own challenges, there are a number of consistent themes. Yes, there has been a budding economic recovery since the 2008 global crash, but in key indicators in areas such as health and education, major economies have continued to decline. Yet this isn’t the case with all countries. Some relatively poor European countries have seen huge improvements across measures including civil society, income equality and environment.

This is a lesson that rich countries can learn: When GDP is no longer regarded as the sole measure of a country’s success, the world looks very different.

So what Kennedy was referring to was that while GDP has been the most common method for measuring the economic activity of nations, as a measure, it is no longer enough. It does not include important factors such as environmental quality or education outcomes – all things that contribute to a person’s sense of well-being.

The sharp hit to growth predicted around the world and in the UK could lead to a decline in the everyday services we depend on for our well-being and for growth. But policymakers who refocus efforts on improving well-being rather than simply worrying about GDP figures could avoid the forecasted doom and may even see progress.

31. Robert F. Kennedy is cited because he_________.

[A]praised the UK for its GDP.

[B]identified GDP with happiness.

[C]misinterpreted the role of GDP.

[D]had a low opinion of GDP.

32. It can be inferred from Paragraph 2 that_________.

[A]the UK is reluctant to remold its economic pattern.

[B]the UK will contribute less to the world economy.

[C]GDP as the measure of success is widely defied in the UK.

[D]policymakers in the UK are paying less attention to GDP.

33. Which of the following is true about the recent annual study?

[A]It excludes GDP as an indicator.

[B]It is sponsored by 163 countries.

[C]Its criteria are questionable.

[D]Its results are enlightening.

34. In the last two paragraphs, the author suggests that_________.

[A]the UK is preparing for an economic boom.

[B]high GDP foreshadows an economic decline.

[C]it is essential to consider factors beyond GDP.

[D]it requires caution to handle economic issues.

35. Which of the following is the best for the text?

[A]High GDP But Inadequate Well-being, a UK lesson.

[B]GDP figures, a Window on Global Economic Health.

[C] Robert F. Kennedy, a Terminator of GDP.

[D]Brexit, the UK’s Gateway to Well-being.

【答案】31—35 CBDCA

Text 4

In a rare unanimous ruling, the US Supreme Court has overturned the corruption conviction of a former Virginia governor, Robert McDonnell. But it did so while holding its nose at the ethics of his conduct, which included accepting gifts such as a Rolex watch and a Ferrari Automobile from a company seeking access to government.

The high court’s decision said the judge in Mr. McDonnell’s trail failed to tell a jury that it must look only at his “official acts,” or the former governor’s decisions on “specific” and “unsettled” issues related to his duties.

Merely helping a gift-giver gain access to other officials, unless done with clear intent to pressure those officials, is not corruption, the justices found.

The court did suggest that accepting favors in return for opening doors is “distasteful” and “nasty.” But under anti-bribery laws, proof must be made of concrete benefits, such as approval of a contract or regulation. Simply arranging a meeting, making a phone call, or hosting an event is not an “official act.”

The court’s ruling is legally sound in defining a kind of favoritism that is not criminal. Elected leaders must be allowed to help supporters deal with bureaucratic problems without fear of prosecution of bribery. “The basic compact underlying representative government,” wrote Chief Justice John Roberts for the court, “assumes that public officials will hear from their constituents and act on their concerns.”

But the ruling reinforces the need for citizens and their elected representatives, not the courts, to ensure equality of access to government. Officials must not be allowed to play favorites in providing information or in arranging meetings simply because an individual or group provides a campaign donation or a personal gift. This type of integrity requires will-enforced laws in government transparency, such as records of official meetings, rules on lobbying, and information about each elected leader’s source of wealth.

Favoritism in official access can fan public perceptions of corruption. But it is not always corruption. Rather officials must avoid double standards, or different types of access for average people and the wealthy. If connections can be bought, a basic premise of democratic society – that all are equal in treatment by government- is undermined. Good government rests on an understanding of the inherent worth of each individual.

The court’s ruling is a step forward in the struggle against both corruption and official favoritism.

36. The underlined sentence(Para.1) most probably shows that the court_________.

[A] avoided defining the extent of McDonnell’s duties.

[B] made no compromise in convicting McDonnell.

[C] was contemptuous of McDonnell’s conduct.

[D] refused to comment on McDonnell’s ethics.

37. According to Paragraph 4, an official act is deemed corruptive only if it involves_________.

[A] concrete returns for gift-givers

[B] sizable gains in the form of gifts

[C] leaking secrets intentionally.

[D] breaking contracts officially.

38. The court’s ruling is d on the assumption that public officials are_________.

[A] allowed to focus on the concerns of their supporters.

[B] qualified to deal independently with bureaucratic issues.

[C] justified in addressing the needs of their constituents.

[D] exempt from conviction on the charge of favoritism.

39. Well-enforced laws in government transparency are needed to_________.

[A] awaken the conscience of officials.

[B] guarantee fair play in official access.

[C] allow for certain kinds of lobbying.

[D] inspire hopes in average people.

40. The author’s attitude toward the court’s ruling is_________.

[A] sarcastic.

[B] tolerant.

[C] skeptical.

[D] supportive.

【答案】36—40 CCABD

Part B


The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order. For questions 41-45, you are required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent text by choosing from the listA-G and filling them into the numbered boxes. Paragraphs B and D have been correctly placed. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

[A] The first published sketch, “A Dinner at Poiar Walk” brought tears to Dickens’s eyes when he discovered it in the pages of The Monthly Magazine From then on his sketches, which appeared under the pen name “Boz” in The Evening Chronicle, earned him a modest reputation.

[B] The runaway success of The Pickwick Papers, as it is generally known today, secured Dickens’s fame. There were Pickwick coats and Pickwick cigars, and the plump, spectacled hero, Samuel Pickwick, because a national figure.

[C] Soon after Sketches by Boz appeared, a publishing firm approached Dickens to write a story in monthly installments, as a backdrop for a series of woodcuts by the then-famous artist Robert Seymour, who had originated the idea for the story. With characteristic confidence, Dickens successfully insisted that Seymour’s pictures illustrate his own story instead. After the first installment, Dickens wrote to the artist and asked him to correct a Drawing Dickens felt, was not faithful enough to his prose. Seymour made the Change, went into his backyard, and expressed his displeasure by committing suicide. Dickens and his publishers simply pressed on with a new artist. The comic novel, The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club, appeared serially in 1836 and 1837 and was first published in book form in 1837.

[D] Charles Dickens is probably the best-known and, to many people, the greatest English novelist of the 19th century. Amoralist, satirist, and social reformer, Dickens crafted complex plots and striking characters that capture the panorama of English society.

[E]Soon after his father’s release from prison, Dickens got a better job as errand boy in law offices. He taught himself shorthand to get an even better job later as a court stenographer and as a reporter in Parliament. At the same time, Dickens, who had a reporter’s eye for transcribing the life around him, especially anything comic or odd, submitted short sketches to obscure magazines.

[F]Dickens was born in Portsmouth, on England’s southern coast. His father was a clerk in the British Navy Pay office a respectable position, but with little social status. His paternal grandparents, a steward and a housekeeper, possessed even less status, having been servants, and Dickens later concealed their background. Dickens’ mother supposedly came from a more respectable family. Yet two years before Dickens’ birth, his mother’s father was caught stealing and fled to Europe, never to return. The family’s increasing poverty forced Dickens out of school at age 12 to work in Warren’s Blacking Warehouse, a shoe-polish factory, where the other working boys mocked him as “the young gentleman.” His father was then imprisoned for debt. The humiliations of his father’s imprisonment and his labor in the blacking factory formed

Dickens’s greatest wound and became hisdeepest secret.He could not confined them even to hiswife, although they provide the unacknowledged foundation of his fiction.

[G]After Pickwick, Dickens plunged into a bleaker world. In Oliver Twist, he traces an orphan’s progress from the workhouse to the criminal slums of London. Nicholas Nickleby, his next novel, combines the darkness of Oliver Twist with the sunlight of Pickwick. The popularity of these novels consolidated Dickens’ as a nationally and internationally celebrated man of letters.

【答案】41—45 FEACG

Part C


Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written neatly on the ANSWER SHEET.(10 points)

The growth of the use of English as the world`s primary language for international communication has obviously been continuing for several decades.

(46)But even as the number of English speakers expands further there are signs that the global predominance of the language may fade within the foreseeable future.

Complex international, economic, technological and culture change could start to diminish the leading position of English as the language of the world market, and UK interests which enjoy advantage from the breath of English usage would consequently face new pressures. Those realistic possibilities are highlighted in the study presented by David Graddol.

(47)His analysis should therefore end any self-contentedness among those who may believe that the global position of English is so stable that the young generation of the United Kingdom do not need additional language capabilities.

David Graddol concludes that monoglot English graduates face a bleak economic future as qualified multilingual youngsters from other countries are proving to have a competitive advantage over their British counterparts in global companies and organizations. Alongside that, (48) Manycountries are introducing English into the primary-school curriculum but British schoolchildren and students do not appear to be gaining greater encouragement to achieve fluency in other languages.

If left to themselves, such trends will diminish the relative strength of the English language in international education markets as the demand for educational resources in languages, such as Spanish, Arabic or Mandarin grows and international business process outsourcing in other language such as Japanese, French and German, spreads.

(49)The changes identified by David Graddol all present clear and major challenges to UK`s providers of English language teaching to people of other countries and to broader education business sectors. The English language teaching sector directly earns nearly &1.3 billion for the UK in invisible exports and our other education related explores earn up to &10 billion a year more. As the international education market expands, the recent slowdown in the number of international students studying in the main English-speaking countries is likely to continue, especially if there are no effective strategic policies to prevent such slippage.

The anticipation of possible shifts in demand provided by this study is significant. (50) It gives a basis to all organization which seeks to promote the learning and very different operating environment. That is a necessary and practical approach. In this as in much else, those who wish to influence the future must prepare for it.


(46) 但是即使当下英语使用者的人群还在进一步扩大,有迹象表明:在可预见的未来,英语可能会逐渐失去其全球主导地位。

(47) 因此,对于那些认为英语的国际地位无懈可击、甚至觉得他们的年青后辈们不需要学习其他语言的人而言,他的分析可能会给他们的骄傲自大画上一个句号。

(48) 众多国家正在将英语引进小学课程,但是,毫不夸张地说,英国学童和学生似乎没有受到更多的鼓励去学会流利地使用其他语言。

(49) 大卫·葛拉尔多所发现的变化给教授他国人士英语的英国机构以及更广阔的教育市场带来了显而易见的巨大挑战。




Part A


You are to write an email to James Cook, a newly-arrived australia professor, recommending some tourist attraction in your city. Please give reason for your recommendation.

You should write neatly on the answer sheet.

Do not sign your own name at the end of the email. Use “Li Ming” instead.

Do not write the address.(10 points)



Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following pictures. In your essay, you should

1) describe the pictures briefly,

2) interpret the meaning,and

3) give your comments.

You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (20 points)


Part A

Dear Professor Cook,

I am writing on behalf of the Students’ Union to recommend the famous Forbidden City in our city to you.

The details are listed as following. To begin with, it is in this place that the emperor and his family live. We can know of the daily life of the old upper class in China by visiting it,which will bring great value to our research in this area. What is more, the Forbidden City has witnessed the thousands of history of China, so you can enrich your knowledge about China by visiting it. Last but not least, it is a brave city, which witnesses lots of difficulties and storms. We can learn the spirit of brave at the same time.

I hope you can find my recommendation useful and look forward to discuss it in details with you.


Li Ming


As is vividly depicted in the picture, in the first picture there are a lot of books besides a boy, but he doesn’t read any of them. By contrast, the second one portrays that another boy makes a plan of reading: 20 books one year. In fact, the phenomenon in the picture doesn’t surprise us at all. Simple as it is, the intended meaning of the picture is worth our reflecting.

Undoubtedly, the cartoonist aims at reminding us of the significance of reading and knowledge. At the top of the list, we should attach importance to reading mainly due to that it can enable us to ameliorate ourselves so we can be qualified for future career promotion, and be ready for meeting the forthcoming challenges.What’s more, we ought to place a high value on the role played by knowledge in personal growth. Put it another way, in this ever-changing world, knowledge accumulation is to personal growth what water is to fish. To sum up, if reading and knowledge missour attention in any possible way, we will suffer a great loss beyond imagination.

Hence, it is vital for us to derive positive implications from the above picture. For one thing, we should frequently use it to enlighten the young. For another, we should cultivate the awareness of teenagers that reading isvery vital. Only by doing so, can we become winner in the face of difficulties.


Section I Use of English


Read the following text. Choose the best word (s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

People have speculated for centuries about a future without work .Today is no different, with academics, writers, and activists once again 1 that technology be replacing human workers. Some imagine that the coming work-free world will be defined by 2 . A few wealthy people will own all the capital, and the masses will struggle in an impoverished wasteland.

A different and not mutually exclusive 3 holds that the future will be a wasteland of a different sort, one 4 by purposelessness:Without jobs to give their lives 5 , people will simply become lazy and depressed. 6, today’s unemployed don’t seem to be having a great time. One Gallup poll found that 20 percent of Americans who have been unemployed for at least a year report having depression, double the rate for 7 Americans. Also, some research suggests that the 8 for rising rates of mortality, mental-health problems, and addicting 9 poorly-educated middle-aged people is shortage of well-paid jobs. Perhaps this is why many 10 the agonizing dullness of a jobless future.

But it doesn’t 11 follow from findings like these that a world without work would be filled with unease. Such visions are based on the 12 of being unemployed in a society built on the concept of employment. In the 13 of work, a society designed with other ends in mind could 14 strikingly different circumstanced for the future of labor and leisure. Today, the 15 of work may be a bit overblown. “Many jobs are boring, degrading, unhealthy, and a waste of human potential,” says John Danaher, a lecturer at the National University of Ireland in Galway.

These days, because leisure time is relatively 16 for most workers, people use their free time to counterbalance the intellectual and emotional 17 of their jobs. “When I come home from a hard day’s work, I often feel 18 ,” Danaher says, adding, “In a world in which I don’t have to work, I might feel rather different”—perhaps different enough to throw himself 19 a hobby or a passion project with the intensity usually reserved for 20 matters.

1.[A] boasting [B] denying [C] warning [D] ensuring

[答案][C] warning

2.[A] inequality [B] instability [C] unreliability [D] uncertainty

[答案][A] inequality

3.[A] policy [B]guideline [C] resolution [D] prediction

[答案][D] prediction

4.[A] characterized [B]divided [C] balanced [D]measured

[答案][A] characterized

5.[A] wisdom [B] meaning [C] glory [D] freedom

[答案][B] meaning

6.[A] Instead [B] Indeed [C] Thus [D] Nevertheless

[答案][B] Indeed

7.[A] rich [B] urban [C]working [D] educated

[答案][C] working

8. [A] explanation [B] requirement [C] compensation [D] substitute

[答案][A] explanation

9.[A] under [B] beyond [C] alongside [D] among

[答案][D] among

10.[A] leave behind [B] make up [C] worry about [D] set aside

[答案][C] worry about

11.[A] statistically [B] occasionally [C] necessarily [D] economically

[答案][C] necessarily

12.[A] chances [B] downsides [C] benefits [D] principles

[答案][B] downsides

13.[A] absence [B] height [C] face [D] course

[答案][A] absence

14.[A] disturb [B] restore [C] exclude [D] yield

[答案][D] yield

15.[A] model [B] practice [C] virtue [D] hardship

[答案][C] virtue

16.[A] tricky [B] lengthy [C] mysterious [D] scarce

[答案][D] scarce

17.[A] demands [B] standards [C] qualities [D] threats

[答案][A] demands

18.[A] ignored [B] tired [C] confused [D] starved

[答案][B] tired

19.[A] off [B] against [C] behind [D] into

[答案][D] into

20.[A] technological [B] professional [C] educational [D] interpersonal

[答案][B] professional

Section II Reading Comprehension

Part A


Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

Text 1

Every Saturday morning, at 9 am, more than 50,000 runners set off to run 5km around their local park. The Parkrun phenomenon began with a dozen friends and has inspired 400 events in the UK and more abroad. Events are free, staffed by thousands of volunteers. Runners range from four years old to grandparents; their times range from Andrew Baddeley’s world record 13 minutes 48 seconds up to an hour.

Parkrun is succeeding where London’s Olympic “legacy” is failing. Ten years ago on Monday, it was announced that the Games of the 30th Olympiad would be in London. Planning documents pledged that the great legacy of the Games would be to level a nation of sport lovers away from their couches. The population would be fitter, healthier and produce more winners. It has not happened. The number of adults doing weekly sport did rise, by nearly 2 million in the run—up to 2012—but the general population was growing faster. Worse, the numbers are now falling at an accelerating rate. The opposition claims primary school pupils doing at least two hours of sport a week have nearly halved. Obesity has risen among adults and children. Official retrospections continue as to why London 2012 failed to “inspire a generation.” The success of Parkrun offers answers.

Parkun is not a race but a time trial: Your only competitor is the clock. The ethos welcomes anybody. There is as much joy over a puffed-out first-timer being clapped over the line as there is about top talent shining. The Olympic bidders, by contrast, wanted to get more people doing sports and to produce more elite athletes. The dual aim was mixed up: The stress on success over taking part was intimidating for newcomers.

Indeed, there is something a little absurd in the state getting involved in the planning of such a fundamentally “grassroots”, concept as community sports associations. If there is a role for government, it should really be getting involved in providing common goods—making sure there is space for playing fields and the money to pave tennis and netball courts, and encouraging the provision of all these activities in schools. But successive governments have presided over selling green spaces, squeezing money from local authorities and declining attention on sport in education. Instead of wordy, worthy strategies, future governments need to do more to provide the conditions for sport to thrive. Or at least not make them worse.

21.According to Paragraph1, Parkrun has ______.

[A] gained great popularity

[B] created many jobs

[C] strengthened community ties

[D] become an official festival

[答案][A] gained great popularity

22.The author believes that London’s Olympic“legacy” has failed to ______.

[A] boost population growth

[B] promote sport participation

[C] improve the city’s image

[D] increase sport hours in schools

[答案][B] promote sport participation

23.Parkrun is different from Olympic games in that it ______.

[A] aims at discovering talents

[B] focuses on mass competition

[C] does not emphasize elitism

[D] does not attract first-timers

[答案][C] does not emphasize elitism

24.With regard to mass sport, the author holds that governments should ______.

[A] organize “grassroots” sports events

[B] supervise local sports associations

[C] increase funds for sports clubs

[D] invest in public sports facilities

[答案][D] invest in public sports facilities

25.The author’s attitude to what UK governments have done for sports is ______.

[A] tolerant

[B] critical

[C] uncertain

[D] sympathetic

[答案][B] critical

Text 2

With so much focus on children’s use of screens, it’s easy for parents to forget about their own screen use. “Tech is designed to really suck on you in,” says Jenny Radesky in her study of digital play, “and digital products are there to promote maximal engagement. It makes it hard to disengage, and leads to a lot of bleed-over into the family routine. ”

Radesky has studied the use of mobile phones and tablets at mealtimes by giving mother-child pairs a food-testing exercise. She found that mothers who sued devices during the exercise started 20 percent fewer verbal and 39 percent fewer nonverbal interactions with their children. During a separate observation, she saw that phones became a source of tension in the family. Parents would be looking at their emails while the children would be making excited bids for their attention.

Infants are wired to look at parents’ faces to try to understand their world, and if those faces are blank and unresponsive—as they often are when absorbed in a device—it can be extremely disconcerting foe the children. Radesky cites the “still face experiment” devised by developmental psychologist Ed Tronick in the 1970s. In it, a mother is asked to interact with her child in a normal way before putting on a blank expression and not giving them any visual social feedback; The child becomes increasingly distressed as she tries to capture her mother’s attention. “Parents don’t have to be exquisitely parents at all times, but there needs to be a balance and parents need to be responsive and sensitive to a child’s verbal or nonverbal expressions of an emotional need,” says Radesky.

On the other hand, Tronick himself is concerned that the worries about kids’ use of screens are born out of an “oppressive ideology that demands that parents should always be interacting” with their children: “It’s based on a somewhat fantasized, very white, very upper-middle-class ideology that says if you’re failing to expose your child to 30,000 words you are neglecting them.” Tronick believes that just because a child isn’t learning from the screen doesn’t mean there’s no value to it—particularly if it gives parents time to have a shower, do housework or simply have a break from their child. Parents, he says, can get a lot out of using their devices to speak to a friend or get some work out of the way. This can make them feel happier, which lets then be more available to their child the rest of the time.

26.According to Jenny Radesky, digital products are designed to ______.

[A] simplify routine matters

[B] absorb user attention

[C] better interpersonal relations

[D] increase work efficiency

[答案][B] absorb user attention

27.Radesky’s food-testing exercise shows that mothers’ use of devices ______.

[A] takes away babies’ appetite

[B] distracts children’s attention

[C] slows down babies’ verbal development

[D] reduces mother-child communication

[答案][D] reduces mother-child communication

28.Radesky’s cites the “still face experiment” to show that _______.

[A] it is easy for children to get used to blank expressions

[B] verbal expressions are unnecessary for emotional exchange

[C] children are insensitive to changes in their parents’ mood

[D] parents need to respond to children’s emotional needs

[答案][D] parents need to respond to children’s emotional needs

29.The oppressive ideology mentioned by Tronick requires parents to_______.

[A] protect kids from exposure to wild fantasies

[B] teach their kids at least 30,000 words a year

[C] ensure constant interaction with their children

[D] remain concerned about kid’s use of screens

[答案][C] ensure constant interaction with their children

30.According to Tronick, kid’s use of screens may_______.

[A] give their parents some free time

[B] make their parents more creative

[C] help them with their homework

[D] help them become more attentive

[答案][A] give their parents some free time

Text 3

Today, widespread social pressure to immediately go to college in conjunction with increasingly high expectations in a fast-moving world often causes students to completely overlook the possibility of taking a gap year. After all, if everyone you know is going to college in the fall, it seems silly to stay back a year, doesn’t it? And after going to school for 12 years, it doesn’t feel natural to spend a year doing something that isn’t academic.

But while this may be true, it’s not a good enough reason to condemn gap years. There’s always a constant fear of falling behind everyone else on the socially perpetuated “race to the finish line,” whether that be toward graduate school, medical school or lucrative career. But despite common misconceptions, a gap year does not hinder the success of academic pursuits—in fact, it probably enhances it.

Studies from the United States and Australia show that students who take a gap year are generally better prepared for and perform better in college than those who do not. Rather than pulling students back, a gap year pushes them ahead by preparing them for independence, new responsibilities and environmental changes—all things that first-year students often struggle with the most. Gap year experiences can lessen the blow when it comes to adjusting to college and being thrown into a brand new environment, making it easier to focus on academics and activities rather than acclimation blunders.

If you’re not convinced of the inherent value in taking a year off to explore interests, then consider its financial impact on future academic choices. According to the National Center for Education Statistics, nearly 80 percent of college students end up changing their majors at least once. This isn’t surprising, considering the basic mandatory high school curriculum leaves students with a poor understanding of themselves listing one major on their college applications, but switching to another after taking college classes. It’s not necessarily a bad thing, but depending on the school, it can be costly to make up credits after switching too late in the game. At Boston College, for example, you would have to complete an extra year were you to switch to the nursing school from another department. Taking a gap year to figure things out initially can help prevent stress and save money later on.

31.One of the reasons for high-school graduates not taking a gap year is that ______.

[A] they think it academically misleading

[B] they have a lot of fun to expect in college

[C] it feels strange to do differently from others

[D] it seems worthless to take off-campus courses

[答案][C] it feels strange to do differently from others

32.Studies from the US and Australia imply that taking a gap year helps ______.

[A] keep students from being unrealistic

[B] lower risks in choosing careers

[C] ease freshmen’s financial burdens

[D] relieve freshmen of pressures

[答案][D] relieve freshmen of pressures

33.The word “acclimation” (Line 8, Para. 3) is closest in meaning to ______.

[A] adaptation

[B] application

[C] motivation

[D] competition

[答案][A] adaptation

34.A gap year may save money for students by helping them ______.

[A] avoid academic failures

[B] establish long-term goals

[C] switch to another college

[D] decide on the right major

[答案][D] decide on the right major

35.The most suitable title for this text would be ______.

[A] In Favor of the Gap Year

[B] The ABCs of the Gap Year

[C] The Gap Year Comes Back

[D] The Gap Year:A Dilemma

[答案][A] In Favor of the Gap Year

Text 4

Though often viewed as a problem for western states, the growing frequency of wildfires is a national concern because of its impact on federal tax dollars, says Professor Max Moritz, a specialist in fire ecology and management.

In 2015, the US Forest Service for the first time spent more than half of its $5.5 billion annual budget fighting fires—nearly double the percentage it spent on such efforts 20 years ago. In effect, fewer federal funds today are going towards the agency’s other work—such as forest conservation, watershed and cultural resources management, and infrastructure upkeep—that affect the lives of all Americans.

Another nationwide concern is whether public funds from other agencies are going into construction in fire-prone districts. As Moritz puts it, how often are federal dollars building homes that are likely to be lost to a wildfire?

“It’s already a huge problem from a public expenditure perspective for the whole country,” he says.” We need to take a magnifying glass to that. Like, “Wait a minute, is this OK?” “Do we want instead to redirect those funds to concentrate on lower-hazard parts of the landscape?”

Such a view would require a corresponding shift in the way US society today views fire, researchers say.

For one thing, conversations about wildfires need to be more inclusive. Over the past decade, the focus has been on climate change—how the warming of the Earth from greenhouse gases is leading to conditions that worsen fires.

While climate is a key element, Moritz says, it shouldn’t come at the expense of the rest of the equation.

“The human systems and the landscapes we live on are linked, and the interactions go both ways,” he says. Failing to recognize that, he notes, leads to “an overly simplified view of what the solutions might be. Our perception of the problem and of what the solution is becomes very limited.”

At the same time, people continue to treat fire as an event that needs to be wholly controlled and unleashed only out of necessity, says Professor Balch at the University of Colorado. But acknowledging fire’s inevitable presence in human life is an attitude crucial to developing the laws, policies, and practices that make it as safe as possible, she says.

“We’ve disconnected ourselves from living with fire,” Balch says. “It is really important to understand and try and tease out what is the human connection with fire today.”

36.More frequent wildfires have become a national concern because in 2015 they ______.

[A] exhausted unprecedented management efforts

[B] consumed a record-high percentage of budget

[C] severely damaged the ecology of western states

[D] caused a huge rise of infrastructure expenditure

[答案][B] consumed a record-high percentage of budget

37.Moritz calls for the use of “a magnifying glass” to ______.

[A] raise more funds for fire-prone areas

[B] avoid the redirection of federal money

[C] find wildfire-free parts of the landscape

[D] guarantee safer spending of public funds

[答案][D] guarantee safer spending of public funds

38.While admitting that climate is a key element, Moritz notes that ______.

[A] public debates have not settled yet

[B] fire-fighting conditions are improving

[C] other factors should not be overlooked

[D] a shift in the view of fire has taken place

[答案][C] other factors should not be overlooked

39.The overly simplified view Moritz mentions is a result of failing to ______.

[A] discover the fundamental makeup of nature

[B] explore the mechanism of the human systems

[C] maximize the role of landscape in human life

[D] understand the interrelations of man and nature

[答案][D] understand the interrelations of man and nature

40.Professor Balch points out that fire is something man should ______.

[A] do away with

[B] come to terms with

[C] pay a price for

[D] keep away from

[答案][B] come to terms with

Part B


Read the following text and match each of the numbered items in the left column to its corresponding information in the right column. There are two extra choices in the right column. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

The decline in American manufacturing is a common refrain, particularly from Donald Trump. “We don’t make anything anymore,” he told Fox News, while defending his own made-in-Mexico clothing line.

Without question, manufacturing has taken a significant hit during recent decades, and further trade deals raise questions about whether new shocks could hit manufacturing.

But there is also a different way to look at the data.

Across the country, factory owners are now grappling with a new challenge: instead of having too many workers, they may end up with too few. Despite trade competition and outsourcing, American manufacturing still needs to replace tens of thousands of retiring boomers every years. Millennials may not be that interested in taking their place, other industries are recruiting them with similar or better pay.

For factory owners, it all adds up to stiff competition for workers—and upward pressure on wages. “They’re harder to find and they have job offers,” says Jay Dunwell, president of Wolverine Coil Spring, a family-owned firm, “They may be coming into the workforce, but they’ve been plucked by other industries that are also doing an well as manufacturing,” Mr. Dunwell has begun bringing high school juniors to the factory so they can get exposed to its culture.

At RoMan Manufacturing, a maker of electrical transformers and welding equipment that his father cofounded in 1980, Robert Roth keep a close eye on the age of his nearly 200 workers, five are retiring this year. Mr. Roth has three community-college students enrolled in a work-placement program, with a starting wage of $13 an hour that rises to $17 after two years.

At a worktable inside the transformer plant, young Jason Stenquist looks flustered by the copper coils he’s trying to assemble and the arrival of two visitors. It’s his first week on the job. Asked about his choice of career, he says at high school he considered medical school before switching to electrical engineering. “I love working with tools. I love creating.” he says.

But to win over these young workers, manufacturers have to clear another major hurdle: parents, who lived through the worst US economic downturn since the Great Depression, telling them to avoid the factory. Millennials “remember their father and mother both were laid off. They blame it on the manufacturing recession,” says Birgit Klohs, chief executive of The Right Place, a business development agency for western Michigan.

These concerns aren’t misplaced:Employment in manufacturing has fallen from 17 million in 1970 to 12 million in 2013. When the recovery began, worker shortages first appeared in the high-skilled trades. Now shortages are appearing at the mid-skill levels.

“The gap is between the jobs that take to skills and those that require a lot of skill,” says Rob Spohr, a business professor at Montcalm Community College. “There’re enough people to fill the jobs at McDonalds and other places where you don’t need to have much skill. It’s that gap in between, and that’s where the problem is. ”

Julie Parks of Grand Rapids Community points to another key to luring Millennials into manufacturing:a work life balance. While their parents were content to work long hours, young people value flexibility. “Overtime is not attractive to this generation. They really want to live their lives,” she says.

[A] says that he switched to electrical engineering because he loves working with tools.
41. Jay Deuwell[B] points out that there are enough people to fill the jobs that don’t need much skill.
42. Jason Stenquist[C] points out that the US doesn’t manufacture anything anymore.
43. Birgit Klohs[D] believes that it is important to keep a close eye on the age of his workers.
44. Rob Spohr[E] says that for factory owners, workers are harder to find because of stiff competition.
45.Julie Parks[F] points out that a work life balance can attract young people into manufacturing.
[G] says that the manufacturing recession is to blame for the lay-off the young people’s parents.


41 [E] says that for factory owners, workers are harder to find because of stiff competition.

42 [A] says that he switched to electrical engineering because he loves working with tools.

43 [G] says that the manufacturing recession is to blame for the lay-off the young people’s parents.

44 [B] points out that there are enough people to fill the jobs that don’t need much skill.

45 [F] points out that a work life balance can attract young people into manufacturing.


Translate the following text into Chinese. Write your translation neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)

My dream has always been to work somewhere in an area between fashion and publishing. Two years before graduating from secondary school, I took a sewing and design course thinking that I would move on to a fashion design course. However, during that course I realized I was not good enough in this area to compete with other creative personalities in the future, so I decided that it was not the right path for me. Before applying for university I told everyone that I would study journalism, because writing was, and still is, one of my favourite activities. But, to be honest, I said it , because I thought that fashion and me together was just a dream—I knew that no one could imagine me in the fashion industry at all!So I decided to look for some fashion-related courses that included writing. This is when I noticed the course “Fashion Media & Promotion.”



Part A

47. Directions:

Suppose you are invited by Professor Williams to give a presentation about Chinese cultur e to a group of international students. Write a reply to

1)Accept the invitation, and

2)Introduce the key points of your presentation.

You should write about 100 words on the ANSWER SHEET.

Do not use your own name. Use “Li Ming”instead.

Do not write your address.(10points).


Dear professor,

I am so happy to learn that there will be an activity to introduce Chinese culture for the foreign students. And it is an great honor for me to be invited to give a presentation.

Here are some necessary information about my presentation. To begin with, my topic is concerning the tradition of Chinese Spring Festival. Moreover, I will make clear that due to its unique geographical features, China’s customs for celebrating the Lunar New Year are slightly different. In addition, my statement will last about 2 hours. I am sure that would be immensely beneficial to those who are interested.

Its my great pleasure to participate in this activity. Please feel free to contact me for more questions.

Yours sincerely,

Li Ming

Part B

48. Directions:

Write an essay based on the following chart. In your writing, you should

1)interpret the chart,and

2)give your comments.

You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET.(15 points)


Based upon the data of the chart, it can be seen that the number of museums in China has been on a steady rise. In the year of 2013, the number of museums was only about 416.5 million, while, within no more than two years, it went up to 467.9 million in 2015. What’s more, an increasing number of visitors come to museums as time goes on, which ascended from 637.8 million to 781.1 million during the same period.

It is no difficult to come up with several possible factors accounting for the increasing number of . At the top of the list, according to a recent survey, about 55% respondents think that the improvement of the standard and level of knowledge has become necessary in their life, especially for current undergraduates of our country. Another equally vital point to be considered is that the improvement of people’s better living level provides more chances for modern residents to visit museums. Last but not the least, residents’ emphasis on spare-time life also contribute to the trend described in the line chart.

Considering what has been argued so far, we could safely come to the conclusion that the trend is no exception So it is advised that people should spend more time to visit museums to enrich their life and historical knowledge.


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